For seven hundred years from 1169 the English made earnest though costly attempts for the political and cultural subjugation of Ireland. Within two centuries the political conquest was almost over but the cultural aggression could never be completed. By the 19th century English had replaced the Gaelic as the language of the educated but in religion and other spheres of culture, the Irish put up a cease less resistance. The Catholic Emancipation Act of 1828 brought to an end of religious disruptions but the struggle for political freedom continued. England had to grant larger and larger amount of autonomy in successive stage. After the Second World War, the republic of Ireland was proclaimed in 1949. The literary movement arose in Ireland in late 19th and early 20th Century. It was a kind of upshot of nationalistic urge. It aimed at reviving the folklore and the traditions of Gaelic culture. There are critics who believe it to be an off shoot or branch of the anguished people. It was a kind of disillusion which was caused by a divorce case in which the great national leader Charles Parnell was involved in 1890. The case might have influenced its young leaders but the movement dated back to forties. The young Ireland group demanded a revival of the ancient Irish greatness in politics and culture which the earlier writers like Swift, Goldsmith, Sheridan and Burke, wrote in English and appealed to people regarding the revival of Ireland. The Celtic society which was dedicated to the publication of Gaelic documents was established in 1845. The movement may be said to have begun formally with the publication of History of Ireland in 1878.Heroic Period by Standish James o’Grady present almost complete account of Ireland. There were other writers beside Grady who paved the path for the Celtic revival. A lot of talent was to be discovered during this period of the revival. It emerged out in form of lady Gregory, W.B.Yeats, George William Russell and J.M.Synge. Lady Isabella Augusta Gregory founded Irish National Theatre Society in 1901 at Dublin with W.B.Yeats as its president. Her first successful play was Spreading the News(1904). Many of her pieces were collected in Seven Short Plays (1909) and New Comedies. History and political satire were what occupied her in The White Cockade, The Rising of the Moon and the Deliverer. In all her plays Lady Gregory dramatized the features of common life with humor and sympathy. W.B.Yeats (1865-1939), as has been indicated above took a very leading part in this revival. One of the first dramas staged at the Abbey Theatre was his The Countess Cathleen. His father was a Pre-Raphaelite painter and his early days were spent in the wild country of Sligo in Western Ireland. His collection of Irish stories, The Celtic Twilight (1893) dealt with the fairy mythology and was marked by a typical sweetness of dream and memory. The Wanderings of Oisin (1889) dealt with the story of a blind and old pagan who returned to tell his tale after three centuries in a fairy land. It is full of symbolism mixed with pagan spirit and sensual music. W.B.Yeats was troubled by a nostalgic yearning for an ideal land beyond the stir and tumult of defeated dreams. The most remarkable in the collection is The Lake Isle of Innisfree. His other remarkable poems are The Green Helmet, Responsibilities, The Second Coming and The Byzantium Poems. George William Russell, a poet, painter, critic and economist is also a great figure in the Celtic Revival. Yeats sought mainly beauty but Russell sought truth. From earthly experiences he was constantly passing to mystical ecstasy. His mysticism was free from any magic or dream. He wrote Homeward, The House of Titans. J.M.Synge was in Paris when Yeats met him. On Yeats’ advice he returned to Ireland.  He became successful as a dramatist because his sole object was to present life, not any mystical problem or ideas. His plays like Riders to the Sea, In the Shadow of Clean, The Wells of the Saints, The Playboy of the Western World, The Thinkers wedding are well constructed. The study of French dramas gave him the sense of form. He gave an ironic view of life that made even his comedy grim. Apart from the talented artists mentioned above the movement had many other writers who are always remembered as they are deeply engraved in the hearts of the people.